General reports on design.
The Guide supports system level thinking as a direct action through the Road to Zero action plan, supporting the land transport system to give effect to safe system principles, mode shift, good urban form, places for people, and environmental outcomes.
The Guide links the reader to resources which are part of the street system including: health and safety, movement and place functions supporting the ONF, urban mobility and multi-modal networks, speed management and road space allocation decisions, parking and freight, and good urban design and form.
The Guide sets out the expectations for integrated planning and design processes for streets. It establishes a ‘common’ set of objectives and principles to provide consistency for the sector, and local government in the development of street manuals and plans.
The primary audiences for this Guide are council partners and Waka Kotahi staff and their suppliers involved in establishing forward-looking network plans to re-shape urban street networks. The Guide provides support to ‘place’ investment policy for the land transport system. The Guide also supports contractors and professional services suppliers responsible for developing and implementing the ONF and urban street projects.
Further supporting information will be available via the Street Improvement programme resources and ‘community of practice’ forums. This will include webinars and presentations as part of our training and capability building.
The Speed management guide: Road to Zero edition supports regional transport committees (RTCs), regional councils and road controlling authorities (RCAs) to develop high-quality speed management plans that will deliver safe and appropriate speed limits in line with Te Ara ki te Ora – Road to Zero (New Zealand’s road safety strategy to 2030) and the Land Transport Rule: Setting of Speed Limits 2022 (the Rule).
This guide sets out an approach to speed management planning for Aotearoa New Zealand that draws together the Rule and the main elements of Road to Zero with Toitū te Taiao (the Waka Kotahi sustainability action plan) and the One Network Framework (the national classification system for streets and roads). The result is a principles-based approach to setting speed limits and managing speeds.
Technical note on how to rapidly build cycleway infrastructure.
This report summarises activities undertaken to produce guidance on road cross-section design for road stereotypes during stage 1 and 2 of this project. The guidance enables road managers, planners and designers to achieve improved safety outcomes by applying consistent standards along a road corridor. Thirteen road stereotypes were identified covering rural and urban roads ranging from freeways/motorways to local access roads. For each stereotype, a range of cross-sections was developed with appropriate attributes. Each cross-section was assessed for crash risk using the International Road Assessment Program (iRAP) and the Australian National Risk Assessment Model (ANRAM). The tables provide guidance on the expected safety performance, or crash risk, of appropriate cross-section options for each stereotype. Note that the range of attribute dimensions in the assessment was very limited, so assessment results should be considered as an indication of the safety benefits for the nominated attributes. This information can be used to develop safety improvement plans on a network/corridor, to reduce crash risk on the network. Network/corridor plans can then inform project scoping decisions.
This user guide provides guidance to road managers, planners and designers on achieving improved safety outcomes by applying consistent standards along a road corridor. Thirteen road stereotype tables were identified covering the road network from rural freeways to urban local access roads. For each road stereotype, a range of cross-sections was developed with appropriate attributes. Each cross-section was assessed for crash risk using the International Road Assessment Program (iRAP) and the Australian National Risk Assessment Model (ANRAM). The tables provide guidance on the expected safety performance, or crash risk, of appropriate cross-section options for each stereotype. Table users should note that the range of attribute dimensions in the assessment was very limited, so assessment results should be considered as an indication of the safety benefits for the nominated attributes. This information can be used to develop safety improvement plans on a network/corridor, to achieve overall reductions in crash risk along the network. Network/c
This white paper serves as input to an upcoming round of regional peer exchanges on nature‐based solutions, and constitutes an incremental step toward developing an implementation guide for using nature‐based solutions to improve the resilience of coastal highways to extreme events and sea level rise. Nature‐based solutions include a spectrum of natural and nature‐based features that serve as alternatives to, or ecological enhancements of, traditional shoreline stabilization and infrastructure protection techniques. In this case, the ability of nature‐based solutions to mitigate storm surge flooding, wave‐related damage, erosion, shoreline retreat, and the potential impacts of sea level rise is of interest. While nature‐based solutions have been used extensively across a diverse array of coastal settings, they are not commonly deployed within the transportation sector. In some cases, understanding of the engineering tools and methods for designing nature‐based solutions to achieve a specific outcome is lacking. This white paper addresses these issues by providing examples of nature‐based solutions and highlighting the best available science that describes their performance as solutions for coastal highways’ resilience. The implementation guide will be informed by the peer exchanges and will address the issues outlined here for the use of nature‐based solutions.
The Review of Rural Road Standards and Specifications in Myanmar project is the first phase of a two-staged project. This report provides a record of activities completed in Phase 1, comprising of a gap analyses of low volume rural road standards and specifications, following a review of existing Myanmar standards and specifications used in the region and elsewhere. The report identifies possible refinements of the existing standards and specifications, and recommends on the development of a Low Volume Rural Road Manual for Myanmar during Phase 2.
The objective of the project is a review of existing Myanmar Low Volume Rural Roads technical standards, specifications and design guidelines in comparison with current regional and international good practice. This will lead to recommendations on their upgrade and expansion within the current NRSSA classification framework. It is intended that these revised standards and specifications will be available for adoption within parallel ADB, World Bank and KfW supported DRRD programmes.
Excellent report on how to improve the accessibility of land, maritime and aviation infrastructure.
This report draws on literature and crash data analysis to identify and quantify geometric road design elements which contribute to casualty crash occurrence and severity on rural roads, e.g. lack of sealed shoulders, steep downhill grades combined with curves, roadsides with narrow offset to roadside hazards, and high-flow rural at-grade intersections. These findings were supported by a before and after evaluation of casualty crash reductions expected from shoulder sealing, pavement widening and road realignment.
Combining this evidence and inputs by the Austroads Road Design Task Force, the report proposes a number of possible changes to Austroads road design guides aimed at reducing the casualty crash risk on rural roads. Most proposed changes involve clarification of guidance, e.g. for selection of design speed in challenging alignments, use of speed limits to control speeds, use of sealed shoulders, selection of barriers and clear zones, and greater guidance for design of low speed roundabouts.
A Commentary is provided discussing the usefulness of different types of evidence in revision of road engineering guidance. It is intended to make it easier for policy makers to select and commission the most appropriate inputs for consideration.
At least 25 million kilometers of new roads will be built by 2050. While essential lifelines for people and economies, roads are also key drivers of deforestation and threaten our remaining biodiversity. A Guide to Good Practices for Environmentally FriendlyRoads aims to mainstream environmental considerations throughout the life cycle of roads – from planning and design to construction and maintenance.
This Guide was compiled with the support of the Latin America Conservation Council (LACC) and The Nature Conservancy (TNC) – working together to promote a new generation of Smart Infrastructure that balances our dual needs for conservation and development with no net impact on natural capital.
Spanish and Portugese versions are at: http://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/centralamerica/panama/conservationroadsguide.xml
The purpose of these Guidelines is to develop and promote apropriate methods ofroad enginering that gives the best posible aces to communites at minimum cost.
This Draft Guide to Standard Design has ben prepared for use acros PWD for therural road network in Vanuatu.
Standard specifcations are a complementary document adresing how the workshould be undertaken. It has ben prepared as a separate document.
The standards refered to in this guideline do not include Urban Roads.
The Austroads Road Design Series is the basis for the Vanuatu Standards
Short paper from Asif Faiz on how rural roads are essential to prosperity and quality of life.
TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 711: Guidance for the Selection, Use, and Maintenance of Cable Barrier Systems provides guidance to highway agencies on the selection, use, and maintenance of cable barrier systems to reduce serious injuries and fatalities as well as operational costs.
Traffic control device and lane marking manual from the Kingdom of Tonga.
Catalog of bio-engineering treatments for use in slope stabilisation.
Interesting report showing a case study on using GRS for bridge abutments on two bridges in Iowa. Note the use of old railway cars for the decking. At only $50k per bridge very cost effective.
Excellent manual prepared by the FHWA covering all facets of accelerated bridge design (where the bridge elements are prepared offsite and then rapidly deployed). It's an impressive approach which over time should hopefully become more widely adopted.
Report describing options for applying experiences from Pakistan to Timor Lest for slope stabilisation using bio-engineering.
Report summarizing how urban transport projects funded by the World Bank catered for disabled people. Includes a check list to help ensure these important considerations are not missed when designing projects.
Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil (GRS) technology consists of closely spaced layers of geosynthetic reinforcement and compacted granular fill material. GRS has been used for a variety of earthwork applications since the U.S. Forest Service first used it to build walls for roads in steep mountain
terrain in the 1970s. Since then, the technology has evolved into the GRS Integrated Bridge System (IBS), a fast, cost-effective method of bridge support that blends the roadway into the superstructure. GRS-IBS includes a reinforced soil foundation, a GRS abutment, and a GRS integrated approach. The application of IBS has several advantages. The system is easy to design and economically construct. It can be built in variable weather conditions with readily available labor, materials, and equipment and can easily be modified in the field. This method has significant value
when employed for small, single-span structures meeting the criteria described in this manual.
As a result of the demonstrated performance of GRS-IBS, the technology was selected for the Federal Highway Administration’s (FHWA) Every Day Counts initiative, aimed at accelerating implementation of proven, market-ready technologies. This manual is the first in a two-part series
and outlines the design and construction of GRS-IBS. The second document is a synthesis report to substantiate the design method. Both documents are a collaboration between many disciplines within FHWA: geotechnical, structural, hydraulic, maintenance, and pavement engineering.
Climate change is beginning to have effects on resource availability in ways that need to be anticipated when planning for the future. In particular, changes in rainfall patterns and temperature may impact the intensity or schedule of water availability, which could affect activities such as irrigation and energy production from hydropower plants. These changes have the potential to impact the energy and other sectors, such as agriculture, and could have broader economic e_x0002_ ects.
However, anticipating the impacts of climate change is a new frontier. There are few examples of predictions of the impact of climate change on resource availability and even fewer examples of the applications of such predictions to planning for sustainable economic development. Developing methodologies to assess the climate impacts and translating them into anticipated impacts on the energy, agricultural and other sectors will be increasingly important in the future as governments and the private sector aim to increase the resilience of their activities to the impacts of climate change.
This report presents a summary of the efforts of a Bank energy and climate change team to develop methodological tools for the assessment of climate impacts on surface hydrology in the Peruvian Andes. The importance of analyzing the potential climate impacts on hydrology in Peru arises in part from concerns about the retreat of tropical glaciers, the drying of unique Andean wetland ecosystems, as well as increased weather variability and weather extremes, all of which will affect water regulation. The study, together with a recently published report by the World Bank, Peru: Overcoming the Barriers to Hydropower, is intended to inform plans for energy development in Peru and enable the consideration of the consequences of climate change for such development.While the report provides some insights into how hydrology may behave under future climate scenarios in Peru, the main purpose is to contribute to the methodological approaches to anticipate impacts from climate change in the Andes Region and other mountain ranges. Developing a methodology is a first step toward improving our ability to predict hydrological conditions in the future. In turn, these predictions could beused to make planning more robust to uncertainty with respect to climate change impacts.
Ultimately, such insights could inform and enrich economic and energy planning, thereby permitting the integration of the consideration of climate change impacts into the planning process.
This handbook provides numerous solutions to wildlife-vehicle interactions by offering effective and safe wildlife crossing examples. It initially describes the critter crossing problem and justifies the need to solve it. Project and program level considerations are identified for planning, placement and design of wildlife crossing structures. Key design and ecological criteria, construction and maintenance guidelines, and effective monitoring techniques are shown and described in this handbook’s practical application examples called Hot Sheets.
Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil (GRS) technology consists of closely spaced layers of geosynthetic reinforcement and compacted granular fill material. GRS has been used for a variety of earthwork applications since the U.S. Forest Service first used it to build walls for roads in steep mountain terrain in the 1970s. Since then, the technology has evolved into the GRS Integrated Bridge System (IBS), a fast, cost–effective method of bridge support that blends the roadway into the superstructure . GRS–IBS includes a reinforced soil foundation, a GRS abutment, and a GRS integrated approach. The application of IBS has several advantages. The system is easy to design and economically construct. It can be built in variable weather conditions with readily available labor, materials, and equipment and can easily be modified in the field. This method has significant value when employed for small, single–span structures meeting the criteria described in this manual.
As a result of the demonstrated performance of GRS–IBS, the technology was selected for the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) Every Day Counts initiative, aimed at accelerating implementation of proven, market–ready technologies. This manual is the first in a two–part series and outlines the design and construction of GRS–IBS.
The Manual deals with the duties of construction monitoring staff involved with the structural works on road projects in South Africa. Such works typically include bridges, culverts, retaining walls, toll plaza structures and sign gantries, but may also include other miscellaneous structures required for erosion protection or other purposes. The Manual specifically excludes matters relating to the roadwork aspects of the works and concentrates on structures manufactured from concrete, the construction material most commonly used in southern Africa.
The aim of the Manual is to describe the duties and responsibilities of the monitoring staff, and to
provide information and guidance to assist them in effectively executing those duties. It alerts readers to items requiring forward planning and formal approval, and contains useful check lists and control forms suitable for use on site. Although comprehensive, the Manual cannot however provide detailed coverage of all aspects of construction monitoring, and is not intended to cover the wide range of specialised construction systems and techniques available today.
Geohazards can result in significant loss of human life as well as cause extensive damage to infrastructure. The magnitude and frequency of geohazard events ranges from earthquakes and tsunamis to landslides and flash floods. In the most severe cases involving the low frequency but more intense geohazards like earthquakes or tsunamis, the primary concern, ex ante, is on the minimization of the potential loss of life and property, damage to infrastructure, and ensuring continuity in the functionality of public and private services. In the higher frequency, lower impact, geohazards, such as landslides, flash floods, and rockfall, proper planning remains vital, but is often overlooked in transition and developing economies. In the transport sector, proper planning for this category of geohazards can realize significant savings in construction costs, avoiding cost over-runs, repair costs and costly delays, and subsequent maintenance costs.The principal aims in considering geohazards in the transport sector are: (i) to minimize the risk and effect of geohazards on infrastructure and on the general public; (ii) to ensure that the location decisions in respect to transport infrastructure developments are informed about geohazard risks and that appropriate precautions are identified; (iii) to assist in safeguarding public and private investment by a proper appreciation of site conditions and undertaking of necessary precautionary measures; and (iv) to restore the functionality of the transport infrastructure after unmitigated geohazard occurrences, whilst insuring, as far as feasible, that future occurrences will be mitigated.
This technical note provides a summary of the typology of geohazards, prospective mitigation measures, and current practices in managing geohazards. It also outlines some key recommendations to facilitate improved management of geohazards in the transport sector.
Albania has made considerable progress since transition in overcoming the legacy of nearly forty years of autarky. But despite significant progress and some of the fastest rates of GDP growth in South East Europe, it remains one of the impoverished countries in Europe, with the majority of the population, and the majority of the poor, living in rural areas. These areas, despite the acknowledged links between infrastructure provision and poverty reduction, are currently poorly served by infrastructure, with the majority of the secondary and local road network in poor condition, and often impassable in inclement weather. Accordingly, in 2006, the Prime Minister established a task force to prepare a program to improve a significant proportion of the secondary and local network and requested the assistance of the World Bank to prepare, and contribute to the financing, of such a program. This Transport Note summarizes the experience of the World Bank and details the key factors underpinning what has became a very successful program, together with the main lessons learned.
A report describing how "Universal Design" - i.e. catering for persons with disabilities - was addressed on transport projects financed by the World Bank in East Asia and the Pacific region.
The report gives a good overview of the issues faced and contains recommendations on how to consider disabled persons in future designs.
The FHWA Technical Manual for Design and Construction of Road Tunnels – Civil Elements has been published to provide guidelines and recommendations for planning, design, construction and structural rehabilitation and repair of the civil elements of road tunnels, including cut-and-cover tunnels, mined and bored tunnels, immersed tunnels and jacked box tunnels. The latest edition of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design and Construction Specifications are used to the greatest extent applicable in the design examples. This manual focuses primarily on the civil elements of design and construction of road tunnels. It is the intent of FHWA to collaborate with AASHTO to further develop manuals for the design and construction of other key tunnel elements, such as, ventilation, lighting, fire life safety, mechanical, electrical and control systems.
NCHRP Report 641: Guidance for the Design and Application of Shoulder and Centerline Rumble Strips explores the design and application of shoulder and centerline rumble strips as a crash reduction measure, while minimizing adverse effects for motorcyclists, bicyclists, and nearby residents.
Availability of historical unit cost data is an important factor in developing accurate project cost estimates. State highway agencies (SHAs) collect data on historical bids and/or production rates, crew sizes and mixes, material costs, and equipment costs, including contractor overhead and profit. The goal of this synthesis is to identify how state highway agencies develop unit prices for construction and maintenance projects. The synthesis approach consists of a comprehensive online survey, covering every aspect of unit cost development, to identify the state of practice in state highway agencies and interviews with several representative SHAs to gain a better understanding of the practices followed for unit cost development. This study finds that even though SHAs collect and store historical cost data, they do not have a formal and documented process for adjusting unit costs for project characteristics and market conditions.
Report describing appropriate road classifications and design standards for low volume rural roads.
Developed for Laos, this manual is based on the EOD approach. With this approach, the road is designed to suit a variety of task and environmental factors such as rainfall, available materials, construction capacity, gradient, flood risk and so on.
This publication from the Internatiol Roads Federation (IRF) highlights a series of projects, products and practices from around the world that have demonstrated exemplary commitment to the environment and dedication to road sustainability. It is hoped that they will help set new standards throughout the road sector, as well as stimulate ongoing progress. The featured innovations range from advanced traffic signaling and pavement recycling right down to wildlife protection systems. They serve as a first reference compilation of model design considerations, technologies and research applications. Furthermore, they provide a comprehensive overview of the various aspects of environmental impact mitigation as they apply to the road industry, with the aim of setting practical examples and establishing a basis for the development of best practices.
Standards adopted for Georgia (the country - not the state!).
Excellent manual from Pakistan on slope stabilization methods. With lots of great pictures. Highly recommended.
WARNING: 38 MB file.
The guide promotes a consistent ‘world’s best practice’ approach to planning, designing, operating and maintaining walking infrastructure and networks. It supports the New Zealand Transport Strategy (NZTS) and the priorities for action in Getting there – on foot, by cycle (the national walking and cycling strategy). In doing so, it encourages walking as a viable mode of transport for short trips in and around our communities, and recognises the important role walking also plays in many car and public transport journeys. It is also a useful tool for those with an active interest in walking, such as community leaders, local councillors and advocacy groups.
Design considerations for urban transport projects to maximize accessibility, particularly for the disabled.
The \'Design Directives\' from the West Virginia Department of Highways. Comprehensive report cover all aspects of road design and implementation.
Report describing road classification system in the Philippines.
Report describing how to consider disabled people in transportation design
The aim of these Specifications is to provide a basic set of quality requirements for the use of both local technical staff and contractors, to carry out and supervise construction and maintenance works on low cost rural roads projects. The requirements included here are based on similar documents prepared for national roads and take into account international practice for similar roads.
The aim of this manual is to provide basic advice for engineers and other technical staff working at commune and village level. It had been designed to be used by those with some technical background but with little formal training in road engineering.
Guide produced by the Netherlands to embody road safety in all elements of the design process.
Guidelines for China for highway capacity analysis to be used in planning and design of road links etc.
The GOST design standards which are commonly used in Russia and the former CIS states.
This paper focuses on several aspects of the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2000), these being traffic capacity and quality, measures of effectiveness. The paper also presents approaches that may be better adapted to the demands faced in assessing future development.
Report covering all aspects of engineering for low-volume roads by Gordon Keller and James Scherar. Highly recommended.
An excellent guide on all aspects of engineering for low volume roads.
Produced by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), these standards were elaborated under technical guidance provided by the countries participating in the Trans-European North-South Motorway Project (TEM) and were adopted by the Steering Committee of the Project.
The role of these standards is to ensure that the planning and design of the TEM motorway provide for the adequate traffic flow at minimum operating cost, while ensuring harmonized conditions for motorway users, proper level of service, safety, speed and driver comfort over medium and long distances.
Covers all aspects of motorway design.
The 2000 version of the USA Highway Capacity Manual (HCM).
French Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Housing Directorate of Roads Circular No. 2000 – 87 of 12 December 2000. Standards to be applied for all interurban motorway projects, whether they cover new infrastructure or improvements to existing roads. Within the meaning of this circular, motorways are roads with separate carriageways, each with at least two lanes in their link sections, isolated from their surroundings and with grade-separated junctions.
The document contains nine chapters. Chapter 1, on general design, describes how to adapt the project to its context. Chapter 2 lays down visibility rules for all aspects of design. The next three chapters describe the main geometric characteristics of the motorway: alignment (3), cross-section (4) and interchanges (5). Chapters 6 and 7 give the principles for restoring communications and for facilities and user services. Chapters 8 and 9 give specific rules for motorway sections in difficult relief and for converting a road into a motorway.
A comprehensive highway capacity study and guideline development (HCS) was undertaken in the Hebei and Henan provinces 1995–1999. Field data collection was conducted at 144 road links and at 19 major intersections outside of urban areas. Aggregated data from all road link sites was analyzed to obtain passenger car equivalents,free-flow speed, and speed-flow-density relationships for all road and terrain types.
Revised bioengineering information relevant to Nepal.
Highway Capacity Guidelines for China.
This guide is designed for low volume roads, with construction limited to a tractor and ordinary earth moving equipment. Logging roads on small woodland properties are usually constructed by the logging contractor, sawmill operator, or by a road contractor. This guide applies to low-speed forest roads with a 12-foot-wide running surface that are needed only temporarily or only during certain times of the year. Recommendations in this guide cover basic planning, construction, drainage, maintenance, and closure of such forest roads. The recommendations incorporate best management practices, which are designed to reduce nonpoint-source pollution, as can occur during road building. This guide also covers special situations involving water that require individual consideration: streams with or without migratory fish, beaver ponds, and wetlands. Each of these situations is covered in a separate section.
TRL Overseas Road Note 16. This note discusses the principles behind design decisions and procedures demanded by the rigours of a mountainous environment. The geographical areas addressed are geologically young fold mountain regions in humid tropical and sub-tropical climatic zones. However, most of the principles in the Note would be applicable in any steep, topographically complex, unstable terrain. The main subjects covered are terrain hazards, route planning and site investigations, drainage design, and slope stabilisation and protection. The Note emphasises the risks associated with inappropriate design and poor construction practice, and describes procedures and techniques that are safe and economical. The Note is aimed principally at design engineers, but it will also be of value to all those involved in site investigations and contracting
FHWA Report FHWA-FLP-94-006.
This report was developed to assist the engineer and manager in planning and utilizing geotechnical engineering information, in the decision making process for selecting an appropriate type of retaining wall. It serves as a technical reference, summarizing the fundamentals of design for retaining walls used by lowvolume road agencies. The design guide presents a compendium of standard design, including sample calculations, standards and specifications.
Report by Chris Hoban of the World Bank on geometric standards for rural roads.