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Welcome to Chris Bennett's and Lis Pedersen's web site. If you are looking for information Chris' current work on affordable housing, please visit www.mygbhousing.info. The video below tells the background to Chris' project.


RMS Applications

The application of the principles of road management.

: The International Roughness Index (IRI) has been accepted globally as an essential indicator for assessing pavement condition. The Laos Road Management System (RMS) utilizes a default Highway Development and Management (HDM-4) IRI prediction model. However, developed IRI values have shown the need to calibrate the IRI prediction model. Data records are not fully available for Laos yet, making it difficult to calibrate IRI for the local conditions. This paper aims to develop an IRI prediction model for the National Road Network (NRN) based on the available Laos RMS database. The Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) analysis technique was applied to develop two new IRI prediction models for Double Bituminous Surface Treatment (DBST) and Asphalt Concrete (AC) pavement sections. The final database consisted of 83 sections with 269 observations over a 1850 km length of DBST NRN and 29 sections with 122 observations over a 718 km length of AC NRN. The proposed models predict IRI as a function of pavement age and Cumulative Equivalent Single-Axle Load (CESAL). The model’s parameter analysis confirmed their significance, and R2 values were 0.89 and 0.84 for DBST and AC models, respectively. It can be concluded that the developed models can serve as a useful tool for engineers maintaining paved NRN.

Ministry of Infrastructure, Ports, Energy and Labour (MIPEL) of Saint Lucia is responsible for maintenance of over 1 000 km of roads. Before implementation of the Road Asset Management System (RAMS) the maintenance philosophy was ad-hoc and reactive. This paper describes the implementation of the RAMS as part of a shift from reactive to preventive maintenance.

The biggest task in the establishment of the RAMS was the extensive data collection. Data collection included GPS data on the road centrelines, calibrated International Roughness Index of the whole road network, orthophotos and 360-degree images, photography, traffic counting as well as pavement distress and road inventory based on the collected digital imagery. Besides roads, inventory and condition data was collected on all the bridges. Webbased Road Management System, Road Inventory System and Bridge Management System were implemented and used for maintenance planning. Capacity building with both on-the-job training and classroom training were carried out. The road network is in fair condition with some very congested roads. The maintenance budget should be increased and RAMS should be further institutionalised for processoriented activities for improved road condition in the future.

Rural road connectivity is a vital and essential component for rural development. It provides productive employment avenues and increases the household incomes of the rural masses. By bridging the gap it provides access to economic and social services which results in ensuring sustainable poverty reduction. Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) is one of the ambitious and productive initiatives of Government of India with the vision to increase connectivity which in turn aims to provide sustainable and inclusive growth of rural India. A detailed study has been presented to develop a generic Pavement Management System (PMS) applicable for  PMGSY roads in the state of Rajasthan using HDM-4 (Highway Development and Maintenance Management System), which serves basis for streamlining important processes according to routine and sound practices for the highway engineers responsible for maintaining the rural road network. The study presented herein would assist the budgeting authorities for sensible allocation of funds and ensuring consistent and cost effective decisions, related to maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) of pavements. This paper also evaluates impact of change in environmental scenario and harmful effects of pollution for the next ten years by considering emission of seven harmful gases, namely Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrous Oxide (NOX), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Particulates (Par) and Lead (Pb).

The road traffic has increased manifolds during the post-independence in India. The traffic axle loading may be much heavier than the specified limit in many cases. As a result of which, the existing road network has been subjected to severe deterioration leading to premature failure of the pavements. There is a dire need of developing a meaningful approach towards implementing the maintenance and rehabilitation schemes of the road network. In such a scenario, development of the effective pavement management strategies would furnish useful information to ensure the compatible and cost- effective decisions so as to keep the existing road network intact. The optimum maintenance and rehabilitation strategies applied in this study would be useful in planning pavement maintenance strategies in a scientific manner and ensuring rational utilization of limited maintenance funds. Once this strategy for urban road network is implemented and made operational; this would serve as window to the other urban road network of different regions.

In India, the road traffic volume has increased manifolds during the post-independence period. The traffic axle loading may also in many cases be much heavier than the specified limit. As a result of which, the existing road network has been subjected to severe deterioration leading to premature failure of the pavements.In such a scenario, development of the effective pavement management strategies would furnish useful information to ensure the compatible and cost- effective decisions so as to keep the existing road network intact. The pavement deterioration models can prove to be an effective tool which can assist highway agencies to forecast economic and technical outcome of possible investment decisions regarding maintenance management of pavements. The optimum maintenance and rehabilitation strategies developed in this study would be useful in planning pavement maintenance strategies in a scientific manner and ensuring rational utilization of limited maintenance funds. Once this strategy for urban road network is implemented and made operational; this would serve as window to the other urban road network of different regions.

This thesis identifies the main problems and challenges for successfully adopting PBC are discussed and analyzed. In order to assist contractors as well as road managers a methodological framework is developed and examined in this thesis. The developed framework necessitates the identification of many cornerstones to effectively manage pavement conditions in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. The main components of the developed framework include 1) developing a robust database of detailed knowledge of the road network, 2) developing practical models to predict the present and future conditions of the pavement, and 3) developing robust models to optimize maintenance strategies. The developed framework was applied on a case study using data from the City of Abu Dhabi.

Report describing municipal pavement management systems.

2011 - South Africa - Overview of PMS in a Toll Road Context
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This paper provides an overview of the planning, management and the execution of pavement maintenance and rehabilitation works on the N3 Toll Route between Heidelberg (Gauteng) and Cedara (Kwazulu Natal) which is operated by N3 Toll Concession (Pty) Ltd. (N3TC). The paper focuses on the annual cycle of Pavement Management System (PMS) activities needed to sustain and protect the road asset, with an emphasis on procedures required for meeting contractual obligations of functional condition and hand-back criteria for remaining pavement life. The PMS processes are outlined in the context of a Toll Concession, followed by more in-depth discussions of two key aspects of N3TC’s annual PMS cycle, namely (i) compliance and network condition reporting; and (ii) the rule-based deterioration model used for analysing network deterioration under a given maintenance and financial strategy. The paper concludes with a “lessons learnt” section that highlights some of the lessons learnt in the first decade of management of this contract.

Interesting paper comparing Ireland's PMS models with HDM, and New Zealand's experieinces.

Ireland has a national road network of approximately 5300km which is managed by Transport Infrastructure Ireland (TII). TII create yearly pavement maintenance and renewal programmes using a Pavement Asset Management System (PAMS). Accurate pavement deterioration models and reset values are an essential part of a PAMS and are required for life cycle cost analysis (LCCA). Pavement maintenance and renewal schemes are prioritised based on the LCCA's largest benefit to cost ratio, thereby optimising the annual pavement maintenance and renewal budget. Currently, TII implement pavement deterioration models based on models used in Austria and Belgium, with modifications appropriate to Irish conditions. The reset values in use are based on best estimates of expected treatment effects and were not initially based on the measured post-treatment condition. This research aims to refine and improve the deterioration models currently in use and to calibrate the treatment reset values using measured pavement condition on treated sections of pavement. Several long-term pavement performance (LTPP) monitoring sites were selected for the analysis. The LTPP monitoring sites consist of newly constructed and recently maintained pavement sections throughout the Irish national road network for each subnet category. The international roughness index (IRI), rut depth and longitudinal profile variance 3m (LPV3), measured annually from 2010 to 2019, were analysed and compared to the current PAMS's pavement reset values and deterioration models. Generally, the measured reset values of the LTPP monitoring sites were lower than the TII's PAMS reset values, indicating that TII's PAMS may underestimate the treatment benefit for the LCCA treatment prioritisation process. The measured pavement deterioration rates were also typically lower than the predicted pavement condition values of TII's PAMS. This research concludes that an update to the PAMS, using better calibrated deterioration models and reset values would be highly beneficial. The LTPP monitoring should be continued to assess the longevity of the applied pavement treatments and consequently, determine the full deterioration model for each of the LTPP monitoring sites into the future.

2009 - EU - Estimating Road Maintenance Backlog
 996.21 KB

Maintenance backlog can be used as a common and comparable denominator of road maintenance results for different types of road sub-assets and for different management tasks. The objective of the project was to prepare recommendations for the comprehensive
implementation and use of maintenance backlog indicators (“best practice”).

The project covers the following sub-assets of the road infrastructure:

• Pavements (trafficked and non-trafficked areas)
• Engineering structures (bridges, tunnels, walls and other engineering structures)
• Road furniture (signs, guardrails, lights, etc.)

2008 - World Bank - A Users Guide to Road Management Tools
 3.55 MB

This road management tools guide gives an overview of 14 selected tools for road infrastructure management, and explains how they can assist road administrations and contribute to improving road management practices. This manual captures, in a single document, important features of these tools, scattered around in various documents and on various websites. By providing easy access to basic information for each of the tools, the document intends to promote their use in the SSATP member countries (and key partners groups within).

This road management tools guide is aimed at decision-makers in road administrations who may not always have the necessary technical background or time for in-depth study, but for whom a basic understanding of these tools may be desirable, if not essential. This guide is also intended as an introduction to first-time readers at the technical level. For these readers, this document provides sufficient information and the necessary context to guide them in selecting appropriate tools. It also strives to “wet their appetite” for a more in-depth study of these tools, which is a prerequisite for their application to real-life situations.

This is the interim report from the project implementing an RMS for Serbia.

This is one of the more successful RMS implementations insofar as the consultants have recognized many of the challenges up front, and put in place sensible approaches to overcome them. The report describes the work to date, surveys, software, etc.

Highly recommended.

2008 - China - Shijiazhang Road Management System
 2.17 MB

Report describing the urban road management system developed for Shijiazhang.

2007 - PNG - Bridge Management System Volume 2
 306.45 KB

Report on development of bridge management system for Papua New Guinea.

2007 - PNG - Bridge Management System Volume 1
 1.83 MB

Report on the development of a bridge management system for Papua New Guinea.

2007 - China - Road Management Systems in Three Cities
 1.39 MB

Report describing implementations of RMS in the cities of Guangzhou, Shijiazhang and Urumqi. Identifies the issues encountered. Useful guidance for RMS projects.

2006 - ADB - Road Asset Management
 1.4 MB

Paper by W. Gregory Wood on road asset management systems (RAM's) that exist in typical ADB target countries.

Transport Notes reviewing the worldwide experience with the PBC approach, highlight the main advantages, the steps involved and the results generated. The document is intended to provide World Bank transport sector staff, Ministries of Transport and road agencies of developing and transition countries with a clear understanding of the benefits, and risks, of applying the PBC approach.

2005 - USA - Analytical Tools for Asset Management
 700.12 KB

This report presents two tools developed to support tradeoff analysis for transportation asset management. These software tools and the accompanying documentation are intended for state departments of transportation (DOTs) and other transportation agencies to help them improve their ability to identify, evaluate, and recommend investment decisions for managing the agency’s infrastructure assets.

2005 - PNG - PBMS DEVQ Module User Manual FINAL
 1.08 MB

PNG BMS User's Guide - Volume 3.

2005 - PNG - PBMS Database Server User Manual Ver2.0 FINAL
 9.65 MB

PNG BMS User's Guide - Volume 2.

2005 - PNG - PBMS Analysis Module User Manual FINAL
 2.56 MB

PNG BMS User's Guide - Volume 1.
How the PNG BMS undertook economic analyses.

2005 - PNG - Bridge Inspection Manual
 10.18 MB

The PNG Bridge Inspection Manual.
The analytical approach used in the PNG Bridge Management System.
Conceptual design of the PNG Bridge Management System
Paper on discussions from meeting between Asset Manager from Australian jurisdications to discuss a range of issues relating to Asset Management Systems and successful implementation of these systems.
Paper by John Howe regarding maintenance and management of Africa's road networks.

2004 - UK - Framework for Highway Asset Management
 3.3 MB

Framework for highway asset management that can be used to introduce the concept of asset management, provide a reference for authorities and assist with the development of asset management plans.

2003 - Indonesia - History of RMS Development
 341.36 KB

Commencing from the early 1980’s, a number of management systems have been developed in Indonesia to assist govern-ment in the planning, design and imple-mentation of road improvement and main-tenance works.

This short paper provides an overview of all the systems, their components, their areas of application and inter-action between them.

Executive summary describing MWH Cambodia LRCS survey.
Report by MWH on calibration procedures used in Cambodia network survey
Report prepared for National Cooperative Highway Research Program. The aim of the project was to develop information on transportation asset management and to apply these findings in producing a Transportation Asset Management Guide for use by AASHTO members and other transportation agencies.

2002 - Samoa - Structure Investment Program
 2.53 MB

Bridge, culvert and ford investment programme for Samoa

2002 - Samoa - Seawall Investment Program
 4.7 MB

Seawall investment program for Samoa

2002 - Samoa - Road Investment Program
 645.05 KB

Road investment programme for Samoa

2002 - Samoa - Road and Traffic Data Collection
 737.55 KB

Methodology for collecting road and traffic data in Samoa

2002 - Samoa - Location Referencing Manual
 472.47 KB

How a location referencing system was established for the Samoa road network

2002 - Samoa - Data Collection Results
 737.55 KB

The results of Samoa GPS, roughness, condition and traffic survyes

2002 - Cambodia - Routine Maintenance Management System
 1.42 MB

Description of the routine maintenance management system installed for Cambodia by Roughtons.

2001 - Samoa - Traffic Survey Results
 1.75 MB

Results of traffic surveys undertaken as part of the Samoa road management system implementation.

2001 - Samoa - Seawall Modelling
 1.17 MB

How seawalls were modelled in the Samoa Asset Management System.
This report describes the short-term IT requirements for the Samoan Public Works Department (PWD).

2001 - Samoa - Asset Management System Specification
 258.1 KB

Specification for the Samoa Asset Management System (AMS). Integrates roads, bridges and seawalls into a single system.

Report by MWH on conducting a location referencing and condition survey in Laos

Report by MWH from a network survey in Laos describing the database and the survey data

2000 - Vietnam - Bridge Management System
 3.35 MB

Report describing the Vietnamese bridge management system.

2000 - Tonga - Road Maintenance Project - Project Overview
 1000.14 KB

Tonga road maintenance project. The project calibrated HDM-4 to Tonga and used it to investigate maintenance funding requirements.
Tonga road maintenance project. The project calibrated HDM-4 to Tonga and used it to investigate maintenance funding requirements.
Tonga road maintenance project. The project calibrated HDM-4 to Tonga and used it to investigate maintenance funding requirements.

2000 - OECD - Asset Management for the Roads Sector
 1.15 MB

This report is a review of Asset Management Systems as applied to the roads sector and the responses to the questionnaire survey carried out amongst those countries represented on a Working Group on Asset Management Systems.

2000 - NZ - State Highway Asset Management Manual
 1.41 MB

This manual sets out Transit New Zealand's policies and procedures for managing the state highway network. The content is based on Transit New Zealand's current practices and those developed in the past from experience in managing the network.

2000 - Canada - A New Bridge Management System for Ontario
 50.87 KB

Ontario’s Ministry of Transportation (MTO) is responsible for the management of approximately 3000 bridges on the provincial highway network. A modern Bridge Management System is an essential tool to aid the Ministry in fulfilling its mandate to provide a safe, economical, and effective road network throughout the province. The Ministry has engaged ITX Stanley, Ltd., to provide this tool, to be called OBMS, in an 18-month project, which began on January 6, 1998.
This paper, in part one, provides a description of the generic Asset Management Planning Framework, including the use of community consultation in developing Levels of Service. The second part highlights the results of the AMP benchmarking survey.

2000 - Australia - Network Referencing Catalog
 1.25 MB

The West Australian location referencing system

2000 - Australia - Features Definition Catalog
 436.31 KB

The West Australian location referencing system

2000 - Australia - Data Definitions Catalog
 359.61 KB

The West Australian location referencing system

1999 - USA - Asset Management Primer
 855.05 KB

A document by the Federal Highway Administration (Office of Asset Management) who are working with State Highway and Transportation officials, providing technical assistance and training to implement Asset Management Systems.
Presentation from PIARC World Road Congress in Kuala Lumpur, covering NZ road management, basis of investment programmes, corporate and network information, asset information and initiatives.

Report describing the implementation of dROAD for the Thailand Department of Highways

1998 - Thailand - Central Database Project Final Report
 5.24 MB

Report describing the conceptual design of a central database for the Thailand Department of Highways.

Gary Norwell and Geoff Youdale paper on the unique co-operative effort undertaken by Australia and New Zealand. Austroads, the association of Australia and New Zealand road transport and traffic authorities, is working to improve asset management and increase community benefits from the road asset in both countries.

1995 - Thailand - Thailand PMS Design
 3.61 MB

Report describing the modelling approach based on HDM-4 used to introduce dTIMS to Thailand.

1994 - USA - SHRP-LTPP Overview: Five-Year Report
 12.9 MB

This report provides an overview of the first 5 years of the SHRP-LTPP program. The background, LTPP history, activities and approaches, and decision-making processes of the program are detailed. Included are summaries of the studies initiated for general and specific pavement types, the characterization of pavement materials, monitoring activities, the LTPP database and Information Management System, data analysis, traffic data collection and analysis, as well as a summary of the contributions made by international participants. The general LTPP program is described and the expected results, products, and benefits are also outlined.

1994 - Lesotho - DTIMS Calibration for Lesotho
 104.79 KB

Preliminary Draft Report that discusses the quantification of VOC for use in dTIMS.

Working paper on the condition of the Mayanmar network and the MCTS initiated roughness meter calibration.

1982 - UK- RTIM2 Model Manual
 1.88 MB

The RTIM2 Model was developed by the TRL for economic analysis of rural roads.


Chris in the NCT Race 

Chris has an adventurous spirit which generally involves cycling, running, or just being out there having a good time. Read his 'Race Reports' below. This is a link to his SPOT GPS tracker. If you are interested in his 'geeky' sport technical blog it is at www.tri-duffer.com. He also has stories of his life as 'An Overtravelled Engineer Working for the World Bank' at World Bank Traveller.


Race Reports


Document Library


  • Chris' published papers and reports are here.
  • His Technical Library  has a range of reports 
  • Golden Bay community projects are here.
  • The history of the ROMDAS company is here.
  • The 'Road to Good Health' HIV/AIDs Toolkit is here.


Technical Library

Chris and Lis

Chris and Lis

We are Lis Pedersen and Chris Bennett. We’ve been married over 30 years and each found our way to New Zealand in the early 1980s from Denmark and Canada respectively. Golden Bay has been our happy place for almost 20 years and we are now based in Pohara just above the beach, with our two cats Coco and Max. 




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